Clinical Review

Guidance for the Clinical Management of Thirdhand Smoke Exposure in the Child Health Care Setting


 

References

From the Center for Child and Adolescent Health Research and Policy, Division of General Academic Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, and the Tobacco Research and Treatment Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Abstract

  • Objective: To explain the concept of thirdhand smoke and how it can be used to protect the health of children and improve delivery of tobacco control interventions for parents in the child health care setting.
  • Methods: Review of the literature and descriptive report.
  • Results: The thirdhand smoke concept has been used in the CEASE intervention to improve the delivery of tobacco control counseling and services to parents. Materials and techniques have been developed for the child health care setting that use the concept of thirdhand smoke. Scientific findings demonstrate that thirdhand smoke exposure is harmful and establishes the need for clinicians to communicate the cessation imperative: the only way to protect non-smoking household members from thirdhand smoke is for all household smokers to quit smoking completely. As the scientific knowledge of thirdhand smoke increases, advocates will likely rely on it to encourage completely smoke-free places.
  • Conclusion: Recent scientific studies on thirdhand smoke are impelling further research on the topic, spurring the creation of tobacco control policies to protect people from thridhand smoke and stimulating improvements to the delivery of tobacco control counseling and services to parents in child health care settings.

Key words: thirdhand smoke; smoking; tobacco; indoor air quality; smoking cessation; pediatrics.

While “thirdhand smoke” may be a relatively new term, it is rooted in an old concept—the particulate matter and residue from tobacco smoke left behind after tobacco is burned. In 1953, Dr. Ernest Wynder and his colleagues from the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis showed that condensate made from the residue of cigarette smoke causes cancer [1]. This residue left behind by burning cigarettes is now known as thirdhand smoke [2]. Dr. Wynder used acetone to rinse the leftover tobacco smoke residue from a smoking chamber where he had burned cigarettes. He then painted the solution of acetone and thirdhand smoke residue onto the backs of mice. The results of Dr. Wynder’s study demonstrated that exposed mice developed cancerous skin lesions, whereas mice exposed to the acetone alone did not display skin lesions. Dr. Wynder sounded an alarm bell in his manuscript when he wrote, “Such studies, in view of the corollary clinical data relating smoking to various types of cancer, appear urgent. They may result not only in furthering our knowledge of carcinogenesis, but in promoting some practical aspects of cancer prevention [1].”

Decades of research has been conducted since Dr. Wynder’s discovery to definitively conclude that smoking tobacco and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke is harmful to human health. It is estimated that 480,000 annual premature deaths in the United States alone are attributable to smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke [3]. The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide tobacco use is responsible for more than 7 million deaths per year, with 890,000 of those deaths caused by secondhand smoke exposure of nonsmokers [4]. Epidemiological evidence of the harm posed by tobacco has spurred the U.S Surgeon General to conclude that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke [5]. Despite the overwhelming evidence implicating tobacco as the cause of an unprecedented amount of disease resulting from the use of a consumer product, only recently has a dedicated research agenda been pursued to study what Dr. Wynder urgently called for back in 1953: further exploration of the health effects of thirdhand tobacco smoke.

The term "thirdhand smoke" was first coined in 2006 by researchers with the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) program at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston [6], and recent research has begun to shed considerable light on the topic. In 2011, a research consortium of scientists funded by the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program [7] in California was set up to conduct pioneering research on the characterization, exposure and health effects of thirdhand tobacco smoke [8]. Research findings from this consortium and other scientists from around the world are quickly expanding and disseminating knowledge on this important topic.

While the research on thirdhand smoke is ongoing, this paper summarizes the current literature most relevant to the pediatric population and outlines clinical and policy recommendations to protect children and families from the harms of exposure to thirdhand smoke.

What Is Thirdhand Smoke and How Is It Different from Secondhand Smoke?

Thirdhand smoke is a result of combusted tobacco, most often from smoking cigarettes, pipes, cigars, or cigarillos. Thirdhand smoke remains on surfaces and in dust for a longtime after smoking happens, reacts with oxidants and other compounds to form secondary pollutants, and is re-emitted as a gas and/or resuspended when particles are disturbed and go back into the air where they can be inhaled [9]. One dramatic example of how thirdhand smoke can remain on surfaces long after secondhand smoke dissipates was discovered on the ornate constellation ceiling in the main concourse of the Grand Central Terminal in New York City. According to Sam Roberts, a correspondent for the New York Times and the author of a book about the historic train station, the dark residue that accumulated on the concourse ceiling over decades and was originally believed to be the result of soot from train engines was primarily residue from tobacco smoke [10–12]. It wasn’t until a restoration in the 1990s when workers scrubbed the tar and nicotine residue from the ceiling could the elaborate design of the zodiac signs and constellations be seen again [13]. A similar process takes place inside homes, where smoke residue accumulates on surfaces such as walls and ceilings after smoking happens. Owners of homes that have been previously smoked in are faced with unanswered questions about how to clean up the toxic substances left behind.

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